retamar caliban essay

"Your crisis! A Question, a European journalist, and moreover a leftist, asked me a few urban design essay days ago, "Does a Latin-American culture exist?" We were discussing, naturally enough, the recent polemic regarding Cuba that ended by confronting, on the one hand, certain bourgeois European intellectuals (or aspirants. It goes without saying that these proponents of "There is no such place" are irritated by the insolent fact that the place does exist and, quite naturally, has all the virtues and defects not of a project but of genuine reality. Born from the womb of a common mother, our fathers, different in origin and blood, are foreigners; all differ visibly in the epidermis, and this dissimilarity leaves marks of the greatest transcendence. Ariel By Jose Enrique Rodo. Tempest, becomes in Retamars hands a powerful metaphor of their cultural situationboth in its marginality and its revolutionary potential. The first of these comes from Ernest Renan, who published his drama Caliban: Suite de "La Tempete" in 1878. "In his Philosophical Dialogues Lidsky tells us, "he believes that the solution would lie in the creation of an elite of intelligent beings who alone would govern and posses the secrets of science." Characteristically, Renan's aristocratic and prefascist elitism and his hatred of the common.

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It is not a question of eliminating the should you use contractions in an essay inequalities among men but of broadening them and making them law. Attacking this error from one angle, Jose Vasconcelos commented that "if the Yankees were only Caliban, they would not represent any great danger." But this is doubtless of little importance next to the relevant fact that the danger in question had clearly been pointed out. Austin: University of Texas Press. The confusion lies in the root itself, because as descendants of numerous Indian, African, and European communities, we have only a few languages with which to understand one another: those of the colonizers. But it would never occur to him to confuse a Chinese with a Norwegian, or a Bantu with an Italian; nor would it occur to him to ask whether they exist. This is something that we, the mestizo inhabitants of these same isles where Caliban lived, see with particular clarity: Prospero invaded the islands, killed our ancestors, enslaved Caliban, and taught him his language to make himself understood. He who takes up his pen against iniquity just as others take up the plow to fecundate the earth, or the sword to liberate peoples, or a dagger to execute tyrants." Mella would again" Rodo with devotion during that year and in the following. There are other peoples, finally, whose fundamental structures were savagely dislocated by the dire activity of the European despite which they continue to preserve a certain ethnic and cultural homogeneity (black Africa). Since its publication in Cuba in 1971, Caliban-the first and longest of the five essays in this book-has become a kind of manifesto for Latin American and Caribbean writers; its central figure, the rude savage of Shakespeares Tempest, becomes in Retamars hands a powerful metaphor. The greater part of the native peoples has been annihilated; the European has mingled with the American and with the African, and the African has mingled with the Indian and with the European. This elsewhere is of course the metropolis, the colonizing centers, whose "right wings" have exploited us and whose supposed "left wings" have pretended and continue to pretend to guide us with pious solicitude-in both cases with the assistance of local intermediaries of varying persuasions.